P300-tracking of changes in information processing / working memory in preclinical alzheimer's and mild cognitive impairments (MCI)
Journal of Systems and Integrative Neuroscience
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a presently incurable disease with a significant health burden, with a prevalence of 5.8 million Americans as of2019. Prognosis as well as more effective treatment regimens could be greatly augmented by reliable means of diagnosis in the earlier stages of development. Efforts to characterize impairments in memory in pre Clinical AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) range from the domain involved (episodic, semantic, working, perceptual, or visuospatial), to storage
... (sensory, long-term, short-term, explicit, implicit, autobiographical and morpheus), to memory processing including working memory or information processing (encoding, storage, and retrieval). An emerging area of research aims to determine whether detectable impairments in encoding, storage or retrieval have the ability to serve as hallmarks of pre Clinical Alzheimer's and early MCI giving both clinicians and patients a window of opportunity to halt or reverse progression to AD via early treatment options. For the identification of event related potential (ERP) markers, the P300 has shown promise as a state-of-the-art new device. While prolonged P300 latency recorded via electroencephalograph's (EEG) like BrainView NeuralScan is seen in normal aging, individuals with AD exhibit more prolonged P300 latencies and frontal-dominant P300 distribution when compared to normal individuals of the same age. Key questions now remaining include whether identification of these EEG hallmarks identified with the assistance of devices such as the P300 may provide us with an earlier timeframe in the diagnosis, prognosis and early treatment for AD, as well as providing crucial insights into mechanisms of its early pathogenesis.