Immunotherapy as an Antifungal Strategy in Immune Compromised Hosts
Current Clinical Microbiology Reports
Purpose of Review IFIs cause high morbidity and mortality in the immunocompromised host worldwide. Although highly effective, conventional antifungal chemotherapy faces new challenges due to late diagnosis and increasing numbers of drugresistant fungal strains. Thus, antifungal immunotherapy represents a viable treatment option, and recent advances in the field are summarized in this review. Recent Findings Antifungal immunotherapies include application of immune cells as well as the
... l as the administration of cytokines, growth factors, and antibodies. Novel strategies to treat IFIs in the immunocompromised host target intracellular signaling pathways using SMTs such as checkpoint inhibitors. Summary Studies using cytokines or chemokines exerted a potential adjuvant role to conventional antifungal therapy, but issues on toxicity for some agents have to be resolved. Cell-based immunotherapies are very labor-intense and costly, but NK cell transfer and CAR T cell therapy provide exciting strategies to combat IFIs. Antibody-mediated protection and checkpoint inhibition are additional novel immunotherapeutic approaches.