Cardiorenal Syndrome Type 4: Insights on Clinical Presentation and Pathophysiology from the Eleventh Consensus Conference of the Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative (ADQI) [chapter]

James A. Tumlin, Maria R. Costanzo, Lakhmir S. Chawla, Charles A. Herzog, John A. Kellum, Peter A. McCullough, Claudio Ronco
2013 Contributions to Nephrology  
In developed countries, the continuing rise in the prevalence of hypertension, hyperlipidemia and diabetes has contributed to an overall increase in the incidence of both cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). The observation that even modest reductions in renal function correlate with increased CVD morbidity and mortality has led to the recognition that CKD is an independent risk factor for CVD. Conversely, there is a growing recognition that many pathologic conditions
more » ... hat contribute to CVD, including coronary artery disease, left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction, can accelerate the decline in renal function. In addition, physiologic mechanisms designed to compensate for reduced glomerular filtration rate including activation of the ADQI 11 Workgroup members are listed in Appendix 2.
doi:10.1159/000349972 pmid:23689661 fatcat:3lze6mo3k5blfaj6tptp7rwapu