Nontarget Effects of Aerial Mosquito Adulticiding With Water-Based Unsynergized Pyrethroids on Honey Bees and Other Beneficial Insects in an Agricultural Ecosystem of North Greece

Alexandra Chaskopoulou, Andreas Thrasyvoulou, Georgios Goras, Chrysoula Tananaki, Mark D. Latham, Javid Kashefi, Roberto M. Pereira, Philip G. Koehler
2014 Journal of medical entomology  
We assessed the nontarget effects of ultra-low-volume (ULV) aerial adulticiding with two new water-based, unsynergized pyrethroid formulations, Aqua-K-Othrine (FFAST antievaporant technology, 2% deltamethrin) and Pesguard S102 (10% d-phenothrin). A helicopter with GPS navigation technology was used. One application rate was tested per formulation that corresponded to 1.00 g (AI)/ha of deltamethrin and 7.50 g (AI)/ha of d-phenothrin. Three beneÞcial nontarget organisms were used: honey bees
more » ... ed: honey bees (domesticated hives), family Apidae (Apis mellifera L.); mealybug destroyers, family Coccinellidae (Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant); and green lacewings, family Chrysopidae (Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens)). No signiÞcant nontarget mortalities were observed. No bees exhibited signs of sublethal exposure to insecticides. Beehives exposed to the insecticidal applications remained healthy and productive, performed as well as the control hives and increased in weight (25Ð30%), in adult bee population (14 Ð18%), and in brood population (15Ð19%). KEY WORDS aerial adulticiding, unsynergized pyrethroid, nontarget, bee Aerial ultra-low-volume (ULV) applications of mosquito adulticides involve applying low rates of insecticides from aircraft (10 Ð100 ml/ha, depending on the formulation; Latham and Barber 2007) in the form of an aerosol spray, using an efÞcient droplet size range (Dv 0.5 Ͻ60 m and Dv 0.9 Ͻ100 m, as per label recommendations), to target ßying adult mosquitoes. To maximize the spray efÞcacy, the applications occur during crepuscular or nocturnal hours when some major nuisance and pathogen-transmitting mosquitoes are active, while nontarget beneÞcial organisms, such as bees and butterßies, are not (Connelly and Carlson 2009). Aqua-K-Othrine and Pesguard S102 are two waterbased, unsynergized formulations of deltamethrin and d-phenothrin, respectively, available for mosquito adulticiding in Europe. Both deltamethin (type II pyrethroid) and d-phenothrin (type I pyrethroid) are toxic to beneÞcial insects such as honey bees (LC 50 s 0.05 and 0.067 g per bee for deltamethrin and dphenothrin, respectively, National Pesticide Informa-
doi:10.1603/me13242 pmid:24897869 fatcat:h43tusc5zbdjhny4chwvpgrhmq