An insert of seven amino acids confers functional differences between smooth muscle myosins from the intestines and vasculature

C A Kelley, M Takahashi, J H Yu, R S Adelstein
1993 Journal of Biological Chemistry  
The molecular mechanisms underlying the heterogeneity in contractile properties observed among smooth muscle tissues are unknown. We examined whether part of this diversity might be intrinsic to myosin by comparing structural and enzymatic properties of myosins from two physiologically diverse tissues. Using the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, we compared avian intestinal smooth muscle and vascular smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (MHC) mRNA. We found that intestinal, but not
more » ... scular, MHC mRNA contains an insert of 21 nucleotides, encoding 7 amino acids, in a region near the ATP binding site in the myosin head. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of purified myosin revealed that the relative mobilities of the previously described intestinal MHC isoforms SM1 (204 kDa) and SM2 (200 kDa) were slower than the corresponding vascular SM1 and SM2 isoforms. Furthermore, antibodies raised against a synthetic peptide corresponding to the deduced amino acid sequence of the intestinal insert strongly recognized intestinal SM1 and SM2 but only weakly recognized the vascular isoforms. The presence of the insert in intestinal myosin correlated with a higher velocity of movement of actin filaments in vitro and a higher actin-activated Mg(2+)-ATPase activity, compared with vascular myosin. Other than the MHC insert, one other structural difference distinguished intestinal and vascular myosins: two isoforms of the 17-kDa myosin light chain were found in vascular myosin, whereas a single isoform was found in intestinal myosin. Exchange of the intestinal myosin light chains onto the vascular MHC did not alter its activity in the in vitro motility assay, suggesting that the 7-amino acid MHC insert is responsible for the different enzymatic activities of vascular and intestinal myosins.
pmid:8509418 fatcat:3bvooizqevhajp362pfmyr5pn4