A numerical methodology for thermo-fluid dynamic modelling of tyre inner chamber: towards real time applications
Meccanica (Milano. Print)
AbstractThe characterization and reproduction of tyre behaviour for vehicle modelling is a topic of particular interest both for real-time driver in the loop simulations and for offline performance optimization algorithms. Since the accuracy of the tyre forces and moments can be achieved by the accurate physical modelling of all the phenomena concerning the tyre-road interaction, the link between the tyre thermal state and the tyre frictional performance turns into a crucial factor. An
... factor. An integrated numerical methodology, allowing to couple the full 3D CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) flux within the internal chamber of the tyre with an equivalent discrete 3D structure model, is proposed with the aim to completely represent the tyre thermodynamic convective behaviour in the steady-state operating conditions. 3D CFD model enables the evaluation of the internal distribution of the gas temperature and of the thermal powers exchanged at each sub-wall in detail. This allows to increase the reliability of the tyre thermodynamic modelling with a particular reference to the proper managing of the aero-thermal flow of the brake disc impact on the rim temperature and therefore on the internal gas dynamics in terms of temperature and pressure, being able to optimize the tyre overall dynamic performance in both warm-up and stabilized thermal conditions. The steady RANS (Reynolds Averaged Navier–Stokes) simulations have been performed employing the 3D CFD model in a wide range of angular velocities with the aim to calculate the convective thermal flux distributions upon rim and inner liner surfaces. The simulation results have been then exploited to derive the convective heat transfer coefficients per each sub domain to be employed within the real-time tyre physical thermal model, with the peculiar advantage of an enhanced model reliability for thermal characteristics. To validate the proposed methodology, the tyre thermal model outputs, in terms of temperatures of internal and external layers, have been validated towards the acquired ones within the specific routine performed on tyre force and moment test bench, confirming an excellent agreement with the experimental data in the entire range of operating conditions explored.