A Survey on Bitrate Adaptation Schemes for Streaming Media over HTTP
IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials
In this survey, we present state-of-the-art bitrate adaptation algorithms for HTTP adaptive streaming (HAS). As a key distinction from other streaming approaches, the bitrate adaptation algorithms in HAS are chiefly executed at each client, i.e., in a distributed manner. The objective of these algorithms is to ensure a high quality of experience (QoE) for viewers in the presence of bandwidth fluctuations due to factors like signal strength, network congestion, network reconvergence events, etc.
... While such fluctuations are common in public Internet, they can also occur in home networksor even managed networks where there is often admission control and QoS tools. Bitrate adaptation algorithms may take factors like bandwidth estimations, playback buffer fullness, device features, viewer preferences, and content features into account, albeit with different weights. Since the viewer's QoE needs to be determined in real-time during playback, objective metrics are generally used including number of buffer stalls, duration of startup delay, frequency and amount of quality oscillations, and video instability. By design, the standards for HAS do not mandate any particular adaptation algorithm, leaving it to system builders to innovate and implement their own method. This survey provides an overview of the different methods proposed over the last several years. He has co-authored a book, seven patents, and over 200 conference publications, journal articles, and book chapters. His research interests include streaming media architectures, distributed systems, mobile and geo-referenced video management, collaborative environments, spatio-temporal information management, and mobile location-based services. He is a Distinguished Member of the ACM. Further information can be found at http://www.comp.nus.edu.sg/∼rogerz/.