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<i title="National Research University, Higher School of Economics (HSE)">
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/g5r7khxw2vbdjdl6oxgswoycya" style="color: black;">Foresight and STI Governance</a>
Information and communication technologies (ICT) which are transforming most areas develop non-linearly. Failure to take into account the nonlinear principles of complex dynamic systems hinders development of balanced innovation strategies. Companies and governments lose the ability to effectively respond to "grand challenges". The linear approach does not allow covering a wide range of critical areas simultaneously in the scope of Foresight projects, prevents from applying an interdisciplinary<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.17323/2500-2597.2020.4.10.19">doi:10.17323/2500-2597.2020.4.10.19</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/4vmznpcm3nbepi5gxsxr7jpmdu">fatcat:4vmznpcm3nbepi5gxsxr7jpmdu</a> </span>
more »... approach to developing innovation strategies, correct risks assessment, and making informed decisions. The paper proposes a solution: management based on "cyber-physical systems" (CPS) built on dynamic complexity and nonlinearity principles. Such systems not only integrate computing and physical action but are embedded in everyday environment; they are more than the sum of multiple intelligent computing devices. CPS transforms into collective social systems, integrate information, energy, and material flows, and adapt to physical processes. Cyber-physical systems can offer a sustainable information infrastructure which serves as a prerequisite for building up the innovation potential of a company, region, or country. They make it possible to analyse all stages of an innovation project from the technical and organisational points of view simultaneously, cover all possible social consequences and challenges, and identify unexpected promising developments. CPS have a decentralised structure which allows to solve complex problems and manage large and complex structures in real time, such as an energy grid, transport, smart city, healthcare, etc.
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