The Orchestral Guitar

1897 Scientific American  
onto a second grate, which slopes in the reverse direc tion from the opposite wall, and also extends half way across the furnace; from this it falls onto the last grate, which reaches entirely from wall to wall. Above each grate a large number of tuyer�s admit hot air to the incandescent mass of rubbish (which, from its nature, tends to become matted on the grates) and help to keep it in active combustion. Each grate consists of a set of water tubes which terminate at the lower end in a water
more » ... er end in a water pipe and at the upper end in a steam pipe. The sev eral water pipes are con nected together and are fed at the bottom by a small donkey pump. The steam and gases are led to a horizontal tubular boiler which is mounted a few feet distant from the furnace. The steam which collects in the steam pipes is carried into the steam drum. The gases are con ducted by a flue into the lower part of the combus tion chamber. They are then drawn through the tubes and pass through a suction fan and a cyclone dust separator, finally es· caping to the stack. IT is exactly two hundred years since the cities of France have been lighted at night, though Chief of Police La Reyaie had caused lanterns to be used regu larly in Paris thirty years before. In the edict issued by King Louis XIV in 1697. ordering the innovation, he says: "Of all the arrangements made in our good town of Paris, there is none whose usefulness is clearer and IlIore generally admitted than that of the lanterns This canal took its rise from the Nile at Asiut, and ton, nnder Dr. Billings' di ran almost parallel with it for nearly 250 miles, creeprection, conducted a series ing along nnder the western cliffs of the Nile Valley, of experiments in the lat with many a bend and winding, until at length it ter's laboratory in Phila Fig. S.-THE MANDOLIN ATTACHlIENT. gained an eminence, as compared with the river bed, delphia. A number of old Patent Office reports were which enabled it to turn westward through a narrow inoculated with bacteria, and in a short time the books pass and enter a district wh�ch was otherwise shut off were full of germs of measles, scarlet fever, smallpox, from the fertihzing floods m\which all vegetation in and other diseases. Egypt depends. The northern end stood seventeen feet Trials were then made of various germ-destroying above low Nile, while at the southern end it was at an substances, and as a result of the experiments Dr. equal elevation with the river. Through this cut ran a I Billings says that he has a perfect disinfectant in the pereuaial strealll , which wa tered a province named the gas formaldehyde. The, volume is placed in a glass or which light the streets; and as we believe it our duty to care no less for the safety and convenience of the other towns in our kingdom, we have determined to establish the same system in thl'm and to provide the means for continuing it forever." '1'he system consisted in hanging a lantern with a lighted candle in it across each end of a street, and one across the middle of the longer streets.
doi:10.1038/scientificamerican08281897-137 fatcat:eivcmuk3qfh2ninrvimtwsyuqi