Early Detection of Lung Cancer With Laser-Induced Fluorescence Endoscopy and Spectrofluorometry
Study objectives: We performed a clinical trial of laser-induced fluorescence endoscopy (LIFE) for detection of precancerous lesions and cancer including carcinoma in situ (CIS), which are difficult to detect by white-light bronchoscopy. Design: Results with LIFE were compared with the criterion standard, white-light bronchoscopy. The evaluation of these endoscopic results spectrofluorometrically was examined, and pixels of LIFE images composed of digital signals for the intensities of red and
... reen were analyzed. Setting: Tertiary-level hospital treating referrals and subjects with suspicious results in mass screening. Patients: We examined 65 subjects with suspected lung cancer by both methods, and performed biopsy on 216 lesions. Results: The accuracy of diagnosis by white-light bronchoscopy, with histopathologic results as the standard, was 48.6%. The accuracy by LIFE was 72.7%. The sensitivity of conventional bronchoscopy for detection of severe dysplasia (21 biopsy specimens) or cancer (28 biopsy specimens) was 61.2% and specificity was 85.0%. With results by LIFE added, these values were 89.8% and 78.4%, respectively. Of nine patients with CIS, only LIFE showed one lesion, and only LIFE showed the extent of seven of the lesions. The autofluorescence of eight lesions was measured spectrofluorometrically; normal bronchial tissue, severe dysplasia, and cancerous tissue had spectral differences. The red/green intensity of cancers on histograms of LIFE images generally was greater than the ratios for metaplasia or normal bronchial wall. Conclusions: Use of both methods should facilitate early detection. Evaluation by spectrofluorometry and analysis of digital signal intensity of results by LIFE make results more objective.