TCP Performance in Flow-Based Mix Networks: Modeling and Analysis

Xinwen Fu, Wei Yu, Shu Jiang, S. Graham, Yong Guan
<span title="">2009</span> <i title="Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/ll6bfs5o6bahfinh3u5z2cnyoy" style="color: black;">IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems</a> </i> &nbsp;
Anonymity technologies such as mix networks have gained increasing attention as a way to provide communication privacy. Mix networks were developed for messagebased applications such as email, but researchers have adapted mix techniques to low-latency, flow-based applications such as anonymous web browsing. Although a significant effort has been directed at discovering attacks against anonymity networks and developing countermeasures to those attacks, there is little systematic analysis of the
more &raquo; ... uality of service (QoS) for such security and privacy systems. In this paper, we systematically address TCP performance issues of flow-based mix networks. A mix's batching and reordering schemes can dramatically reduce TCP throughput due to out-of-order packet delivery. We developed a theoretical model to analyze such impact and present formulae for approximate TCP throughput in mix networks. To improve TCP performance, we examined the approach of increasing TCP's duplicate threshold parameter and derived formulae for the performance gains. Our proposed approaches will not degrade the system anonymity degree since they don't change the underlying anonymity mechanism. Our data matched our theoretical analysis well. Our developed theoretical model can guide deployment of batching and reordering schemes in flowbased mix networks, and can also be used to investigate a broad range of reordering schemes.
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