Veins Depth Estimation Using Diffused Reflectance Parameter
In order to perform the standard Intravenous (IV) catheterization, subcutaneous veins must be localized. It is a difficult task, especially in the cases when veins are hard to localize. The factors which affect the veins localization process are the physiological characteristics of patients, mainly darker skin tone, scars, hair, dehydration and low blood pressure. With the help of Near Infrared imaging, subcutaneous veins can be envisioned. This is due to the higher absorption of NIR light
... n of NIR light energy by Hemoglobin (Hb) found in the veins. Besides a superficial view, the veins depth information is also important in order to avoid their rupture by piercing through the walls during IV catheterization process. Diffused reflectance, measured with a camera sensor, can be used for the depth estimation of blood vessels. In this paper, a method to measure the depth of veins using diffused reflectance parameter, is presented. The well-known Monte Carlo model of light propagation in human tissues is used for the mathematical representation. A four-layered skin model is presented with varying vessel depths to describe the diffused reflectance of light while propagating inside skin tissues. The results are validated with Monte Carlo simulations for light propagation in layered medium. A sensitivity analysis of proposed method is also performed with a 5% alteration in the optical parameters of skin due to the change in operating conditions. The results showed a marginal error of maximum value 6.23% in vessel depth estimation using the standard optical parameters, 1.6% for −5% and 10.74% for +5% change in optical parameters.