Risk factors for persistent multisite pain in three occupational groups: CUPID study in Crete
Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Objectives To assess the prevalence of new onset and persistent multisite musculoskeletal pain in three occupational groups, and identify potential risk factors. Methods Our study sample consisted of nurses, postal clerks and offi ce workers (N=596). Structured personal interviews were done at two time points: at baseline and at follow-up 1 year later. We inquired about pain in the low back, neck, shoulder, elbow, wrist/hand and knee, and about demographic, individual and occupational
... upational characteristics. We defi ned multisite pain as pain in two or more body sites, and identifi ed two health outcomes: new onset and persistent multisite pain. We applied logistic regression and calculated ORs adjusted for potential confounding factors. Results 518 subjects participated in both phases (response rate 87%). Sixty-eight percent of participants reported multisite pain at baseline and of those, 62% also reported multisite pain at follow up. The incidence of new onset multisite pain was 16%. Forty or more hours per week at work was signifi cantly associated with new onset multisite pain (OR 5.0, 95% CI 1.1 to 24.0). Heavy physical load (OR 5.1, 95% CI 2.1 to 12.2), very low mood (1.9, 1.0 to 3.2), increased somatising tendency (3.3, 1.9 to 5.5), and strong work causation beliefs (2.2, 1.3 to 3.8) seemed to predict persistence of multisite pain at follow up.