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A carbon dioxide (CO2) refrigeration system in a transcritical cycle requires modifications to improve the coefficient of performance (COP) for energy saving. This modification has become more important with the system's more and more widely used applications in heat pump water heaters, automotive air conditioning, and space heating. In this paper, a single vortex tube is proposed to replace the expansion valve of a traditional CO2 transcritical refrigeration system to reduce irreversible lossdoi:10.3390/su11072021 fatcat:wetfvwkzcnc2bkysigpvdewqae