Performance of blink reflex in patients during anesthesia induction with propofol and remifentanil: prediction probabilities and multinomial logistic analysis
Ana Leitão Ferreira, Catarina S. Nunes, Sérgio Vide, João Felgueiras, Márcio Cardoso, Pedro Amorim, Joaquim Mendes
BioMedical Engineering OnLine
Background The amount of propofol needed to induce loss of responsiveness varied widely among patients, and they usually required less than the initial dose recommended by the drug package inserts. Identifying precisely the moment of loss of responsiveness will determine the amount of propofol each patient needs. Currently, methods to decide the exact moment of loss of responsiveness are based on subjective analysis, and the monitors that use objective methods fail in precision. Based on
... s studies, we believe that the blink reflex can be useful to characterize, more objectively, the transition from responsiveness to unresponsiveness. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relation between the electrically evoked blink reflex and the level of sedation/anesthesia measured with an adapted version of the Richmond Agitation–Sedation Scale, during the induction phase of general anesthesia with propofol and remifentanil. Adding the blink reflex to other variables may allow a more objective assessment of the exact moment of loss of responsiveness and a more personalized approach to anesthesia induction. Results The electromyographic-derived features proved to be good predictors to estimate the different levels of sedation/anesthesia. The results of the multinomial analysis showed a reasonable performance of the model, explaining almost 70% of the adapted Richmond Agitation–Sedation Scale variance. The overall predictive accuracy for the model was 73.6%, suggesting that it is useful to predict loss of responsiveness. Conclusions Our developed model was based on the information of the electromyographic-derived features from the blink reflex responses. It was able to predict the drug effect in patients undergoing general anesthesia, which can be helpful for the anesthesiologists to reduce the overwhelming variability observed between patients and avoid many cases of overdosing and associated risks. Despite this, future research is needed to account for variabilities in the clinical response of the patients and with the interactions between propofol and remifentanil. Nevertheless, a method that could allow for an automatic prediction/detection of loss of responsiveness is a step forward for personalized medicine.