Dynamic Modeling and Simulation of Non-Interconnected Systems under High-RES Penetration: The Madeira Island Case
The defossilization of power generation is a prerequisite goal in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and transit for a sustainable economy. Achieving this goal requires increasing the penetration of renewable energy sources (RESs) such as solar and wind power. The gradual shrinking of conventional generation units in an energy map introduces new challenges to the stability of power systems as there is a considerable reduction of stored rotational energy in the synchronous generators (SGs)
... and the capability to control their power output, which has been taken for granted until today. Inertia and primary reserve reduction have a substantial effect on the ability of the power system to maintain its security and self-resilience during contingency events. Such issues become more evident in the case of non-interconnected islands (NII) as they have unique features associated with their small size and low inertia. The present study examines in depth the NII system of Madeira, which is composed of thermal, hydro, solid-waste, wind and solar generation units, and additional RES integration is planned for the near future. Electromagnetic transient (EMT) simulations are performed for both the current and future states of the system, including the installation of planned variable RES capacities. To alleviate the stability issues that occurred in the high-RES scenario, the introduction of a utility-scale battery energy storage system (BESS), capable of mitigating the active power imbalance due to the power system's disturbances resultant of RES penetration, is examined. In addition, a comparison between a flywheel energy storage system (FESS) and BESS is shortly investigated. The grid has been modeled and simulated utilizing the open-source, object-oriented modeling language Modelica. The dynamic simulation results proved that battery storage is a promising technology that can be a solution for transitioning to a sustainable power system, maintaining its self-resilience under severe disturbances such as rapid load changes, the tripping of generation units and short-circuits.