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The supply chain has been traditionally defined as a one-way, integrated manufacturing process wherein raw materials are converted into final products, then delivered to customers. Under this definition, the supply chain includes only those activities associated with manufacturing, from raw material acquisition to final product delivery. However, due to recent changing environmental requirements affecting manufacturing operations, increasing attention is given to developing environmentaldoi:10.1108/09576059910284159 fatcat:pv5ndv47lje25aljakc6ph7y4m