Real Space Imaging of One-Dimensional Standing Waves: Direct Evidence for a Luttinger Liquid

Jhinhwan Lee, S. Eggert, H. Kim, S.-J. Kahng, H. Shinohara, Y. Kuk
2004 Physical Review Letters  
Electronic standing waves with two different wavelengths were directly mapped near one end of a single-wall carbon nanotube as a function of the tip position and the sample bias voltage with highresolution position-resolved scanning tunneling spectroscopy. The observed two standing waves caused by separate spin and charge bosonic excitations are found to constitute direct evidence for a Luttinger liquid. The increased group velocity of the charge excitation, the power-law decay of their
more » ... es away from the scattering boundary, and the suppression of the density of states near the Fermi level were also directly observed or calculated from the two different standing waves.
doi:10.1103/physrevlett.93.166403 pmid:15525016 fatcat:4kvbkry57vcw5fp7shjjgw4or4