Monitoring of Rock Stress Redistribution in Geological CO2 Sequestration
Geo-Resources Environment and Engineering
Shale gas has become an increasingly important clean energy, which has been explored worldwide in recent decades. Supercritical CO2 acts as fracturing fluid for shale gas production. The safety monitoring is essential to prevent any kinds of leakage from the reservoir as the supercritical CO2 physically stored hundred kilometres underground. Seismic tomography is an imaging technique that uses induced seismic waves to create three dimensional images of the subsurface. It is an effective
... n effective monitoring method to evaluate the caprock integrity in the carbon dioxide sequestration storage (CCS). In this experimental research, a simulated uniaxial compressive load is applied on a granite sample to analyze the stress redistribution for long-term in-situ caprock integrity during CO2 injection. The induced seismic waves are recorded and seismic events are traced based on the Geiger algorithm. The frequency of seismic events correlates with the caprock failure evolution. The acquired seismic data is divided into four regimes based on the frequency of seismic events and the failure process to examine the failure evolution. Furthermore, the travel time and distance is plotted to analyze the variation of velocity. Finally, the double difference tomography (TomoDD) algorithm using arrival time is adopted to recalculate the locations of seismic events and velocity structure in each regime. The results indicate that the passive seismic system can map the caprock stress distribution and allow for imaging of the caprock integrity. TomoDD exhibits sound improvements to relocate seismic events both in relative and absolute locations as well as to characterize the local velocity structure. The study further reveals that seismic monitoring along with TomoDD could evaluate the caprock failure accurately in the CCS.