The Republic of Plato, edited with critical notes, commentary, and appendices, by James Adam. Vol. I., Books I.—V., pp. xvi + 364, 15s.; Vol. II. Books VI.—X. and Indexes, pp. vi + 532. Cambridge University Press: 1902. 18s
Journal of Hellenic Studies
gives a first instalment of the papyri found at Tebtunis in the winter of 1899-1900. This section deals with the papyri from the cemetery of mummied crocodiles, some of which animals were found to be wrapped in, or stuffed with, rolls of papyri, many of them of great length. The date of all the texts here printed lies between 150 and about 60 B.C. Only four are literary ; two containing short lyrical excerpts from unknown authors, while one is a fragment of a collection of epigrams, and another
... igrams, and another contains portions of Homer 11. II., 95-210, with several critical signs. The bulk of the volume, however, is composed of official documents, notably those of the Ka>noypafi.fiarevs of the village of Kerkeosiris, giving elaborate details with regard to the distribution of crops in the village land, and the revenues derived therefrom. The data are summarised in a valuable appendix, which gives a clear statement of the various classes of land tenure in the Fayum (yr/ fiaaikiKr], Upd, x\r)povxi.Krj, and certain smaller categories), and the revenues drawn from them for the state, and throws considerable light on the manner in which military settlers (KOTOIKOI and others) were planted on the land by the government. A second appendix deals with the vexed question of the ratio between silver and copper under the Ptolemies, subverting the old belief in a ratio of 120 : 1, by producing clear instances of conversion of silver into copper drachmae at rates from 500 :1 to 375 : 1. It is consequently maintained that the notion of an equality of weight between silver and copper drachmae must be given up, and a theory of Regling's is adopted which gives a weight of from 15 to 20 grammes to a coin of 80 copper drachmae, and consequently a ratio of value between silver and copper of, approximately, 30 : 1. These two appendices contain the gist of the whole volume, but there is a multitude of detail in it which will be essential to the student of Ptolemaic economics.