Topological and nontopological solitons in a gauged O(3) sigma model with Chern-Simons term

Pijush K. Ghosh, Sanjay K. Ghosh
1996 Physics Letters B  
The $O(3)$ nonlinear sigma model with its $U(1)$ subgroup gauged, where the gauge field dynamics is solely governed by a Chern-Simons term, admits both topological as well as nontopological self-dual soliton solutions for a specific choice of the potential. It turns out that the topological solitons are infinitely degenerate in any given sector.
doi:10.1016/0370-2693(95)01365-2 fatcat:cgfjcxxhvbg2pb4zppqnbc5e4m