Impact of Livestock waste on human health

Omprakash Kumar
The Government of India currently has prime focus on construction of toilets to control open defecation, highly prevalent in rural India. India has about 512 Million livestock population and is largely affected by zoonotic diseases. Microbes are transported to the water bodies in slurry form. The total amount of dung produced is about 3 million tons annually. The main pathogen content of dung excreta is more than faecal extra. Pathogens are bacterial, helminthic, pathogenic and viral. Cattle
more » ... reta have more pathogens than human excreta, while human excreta have more fertilizer value than pig and cow manure. Per capita contribution of human excreta is about 450g in wet condition and 110g in dry condition. The die-off rate of pathogens depends on the temperature, moisture, UV light, type of organisms, and their environment. Modes of transmission of pathogens can be water-borne infection, water-washed infection, water-based infection and insect vector infection. These are prevented and controlled by improving water quality and quantity supplied of water by different state agencies, improving use of water, improving hygiene standards, reducing water body contamination by human and cattle excreta, controlling breeding of insects in water bodies, and use of mosquito nets and repellents at the household level.