Insights into the perspective correlation between vitamin D and regulation of hormones: sex hormones and prolactin
Current Issues in Pharmacy and Medical Sciences
Aim. Vitamin D is currently an exciting research target, besides its obvious role in calcium homeostasis and bone health, enormous work is being directed at examining the effects of this vitamin on various biological functions and pathological conditions. Material and methods. The review of the literature and the analysis took about six months and was carried out through PubMed. This is a search engine opening mainly the MEDLINE database of trusted references. We called up all studies written
... English that were published between the years 2004 to 2021 and that came through using the applied search terms, and analysed all those that met the criteria. Results. The endocrine system with its many glands and hormones and their essential roles in the maintenance of normal body functioning cannot be far from interactions with vitamin D. Male and female sex hormones are no exceptions and many studies have investigated the correlations between these hormones and vitamin D. As such, direct and indirect relationships have been found between vitamin D, its receptors or one of its metabolising enzymes with sex hormones and the development of reproductive organs in males and females. Conclusion. This review summarises the research investigating the associations of vitamin D with sex hormones and reproductive organs in males and females, and thus may pave the road for future studies that will investigate the clinical significance of vitamin D in the management of reproductive system disorders. Despite some conflicting results about the relationship between VD and the effectiveness of the reproductive system, many studies confirm the presence of receptors for this vitamin in the reproductive system, and this supports the direct or indirect relationship between VD and prolactin or VD and testosterone through PO4 and Ca2+ homeostasis, or production of osteocalcin. Therefore, VD is positively associated with semen quality and androgen status. Furthermore, a direct relationship between VD and the production of progesterone, estrogen and estrone in human ovarian cells has been supported by many studies.