Predicting the Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) Potential Distribution Under Climatic Change Scenarios in India
The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) is the most serious pest of rice across the world. It is also known to transmit stunted viral disease; the insect alone or in combination with a virus causes the breakdown of rice vascular system, leading to economic losses in commercial rice production. Despite its immense economic importance, information on its potential distribution and factors governing the present and future distribution patterns is limited. Thus, in the present study we
... maximum entropy modelling with bioclimatic variables to predict the present and future potential distribution of N. lugens in India as an indicator of risk. The predictions were mapped for spatio-temporal variation and area was analysed under suitability ranges. Jackknife analysis indicated that N. lugens geographic distribution was mostly influenced by temperature-based variables that explain up to 68.7% of the distribution, with precipitation factors explaining the rest. Among individual factors, the most important for distribution of N. lugens was annual mean temperature followed by precipitation of coldest quarter and precipitation seasonality. Our results highlight that the highly suitable areas under current climate conditions are 7.3%, whereas all projections show an increase under changing climatic conditions with time up to 2090, and with emission scenarios and a corresponding decrease in low-risk areas. We conclude that climate change increases the risk of N. lugens with increased temperature as it is likely to spread to the previously unsuitable areas in India, demanding adaptation strategies.