Multiple hidden processes complicate phylogenomic inference of deep Basidiomycota relationships [article]

Arun N. Prasanna, Daniel Gerber, Kijpornyongpan Teeratas, M. Catherine Aime, Vinson Doyle, Laszlo Nagy
2017 bioRxiv   pre-print
Resolving deep divergences in the fungal tree of life remains a challenging task even for analyses of genome-scale phylogenetic datasets. Relationships between Basidiomycota subphyla, the rusts (Pucciniomycotina), smuts (Ustilaginomycotina) and mushroom forming fungi (Agaricomycotina) represent a particularly challenging situation that posed problems to both traditional multigene and genome-scale phylogenetic studies. Here, we address basal Basidiomycota relationships using three different
more » ... genomic datasets, concatenated and gene tree-based analyses and examine the contribution of several potential sources of uncertainty, including fast-evolving sites, putative long-branch taxa, model violation and missing data. We inferred conflicting results with different datasets and under different models. Fast-evolving sites and oversimplified models of amino acid substitution favored the grouping of smuts with mushroom-forming fungi, often leading to maximal bootstrap support in both concatenation and Astral analyses. The most conserved datasets grouped rusts with mushroom forming fungi, although this relationship proved labile, sensitive to model choice, different data subsets and missing data. Excluding putative long branch taxa, genes with the highest proportions of missing data and/or genes with strong signal failed to reveal a consistent trend toward one or the other topology, suggesting that additional sources of conflict are at play too. Our analyses suggest that topologies uniting smuts with mushroom forming fungi can arise as a result of inappropriate modeling of amino acid sites that might be prone to systematic bias. While concatenated analyses yielded strong but conflicting support, individual gene trees mostly provided poor support for rusts, smuts and mushroom-forming fungi, suggesting that the true Basidiomycota tree might be in a part of the tree space that is difficult to access using both concatenation and gene tree based approaches. Thus, basal Basidiomycota relationships remain unresolved and might represent a phylogenetic problem that remains contentious even in the genomic era.
doi:10.1101/170696 fatcat:stvpi6mpnnhbvicuehy225rdzi