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Instrumenting code to collect profiling information can canse substantial execution overhead. This overhead makes instrumentation difficult to perform at runt/me, often preventing many known o]fiine feedback-directed optimizations from being used in online systems. This paper presents a general framework for performing instrumentation sampling to reduce the overhead of previously expensive instrumentation. The framework is simple and effective, using codeduplication and counter-based samplingdoi:10.7282/t3-ahja-ma67 fatcat:tbhn6wmmsre4heayyh4my7y4pu