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Foundrymen occasionally experience difficulties with steel castings in meeting ductility specifications of 24 per cent elongation and 35 per cent reduction of area if the steel is deoxidized with aluminum shortly before pouring the castings. Sound castings can usually be obtained in dry sand molds without the addition of " deoxidizers " immediately before pouring. Green sand molding is generally desired but porosity, as "pinholes," often occurs. Aluminum and other "deoxidizers" studieddoi:10.6028/jres.005.017 fatcat:rllbmu6d7fgadnd7x3bvfoygrq