Association of Milk Consumption and Vitamin D Status in the US Population by Ethnicity: NHANES 2001–2010 Analysis

Moises Torres-Gonzalez, Christopher J. Cifelli, Sanjiv Agarwal, Victor L Fulgoni
2020 Nutrients  
Vitamin D has been identified as a nutrient of public health concern, and higher intake of natural or fortified food sources of vitamin D, such as milk, are encouraged by the 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. We, therefore, examined the association of milk consumption and vitamin D status in the United States (US) population. Twenty-four-hour dietary recall data and serum 25(OH)D concentrations were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001–2010 and were
more » ... 2001–2010 and were analyzed by linear and logistic regression after adjusting for anthropometric and demographic variables. Significance was set at p < 0.05. Approximately 57–80% children and 42–60% adults were milk consumers. Milk intake (especially reduced-fat, low fat and no-fat milk) was positively associated (plinear trend < 0.05) with serum vitamin D status and with a 31–42% higher probability of meeting recommended serum vitamin D (>50 nmol/L) levels among all age groups. Serum vitamin D status was also associated with both type and amount of milk intake depending upon the age and ethnicity. In conclusion, the results indicate that milk consumers consistently have higher serum vitamin D levels and higher probability of meeting recommended levels. Therefore, increasing milk intake may be an effective strategy to improve the vitamin D status of the US population.
doi:10.3390/nu12123720 pmid:33276516 fatcat:ltfixsgh7vfvlimtwr6yikoeby