Production by Clostridium spiroforme of an iotalike toxin that possesses mono(ADP-ribosyl)transferase activity: identification of a novel class of ADP-ribosyltransferases
Infection and Immunity
Clostridium spiroforme iotalike toxin produced timeand concentration-dependent incorporation of ADPribose into homo-poly-L-arginine. Polyasparagine, polyglutamic acid, polylysine, and agmatine were poor substrates. Enzyme activity was associated with the light-chain polypeptide of the toxin. The heavy chain did not possess ADP-ribosyltransferase activity, nor did it enhance or inhibit activity of the light chain. In broken-cell assays, the toxin acted mainly on G-actin, rather than F-actin. A
... r than F-actin. A single ADP-ribose group was transferred to each substrate molecule (G-actin). The enzyme was heat sensitive, had a pH optimum in the range of 7 to 8, was inhibited by high concentrations of nicotinamide, and was reversibly denatured by urea and guanidine. Physiological levels of nucleotides (AMP, ADP, ATP, and ADP-ribose) and cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+) were not very active as enzyme inhibitors. The toxin was structurally and functionally similar to Clostridium botulinum type C2 toxin and Clostridium perfringens iota toxin. When combined with previous findings, the data suggest that a new class of mono(ADP-ribosyl)ating toxins has been found and that these agents belong to a related and possibly homologous series of binary toxins.