Temporal frames of reference in Persian speakers language based on conceptual metaphors theory

Hossein Matoori, Bahman Gorjian, Elkhas Veysi, Mehran Memari, Department of General Linguistics, Abadan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Abadan, Iran, Department of General Linguistics, Abadan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Abadan, Iran, Associate Professor of Linguistics, Payame Noor University of Iran, Iran, Assistant Professor of TEFL Department, Farhangian University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
2020 Advances in Cognitive Science  
102 Introduction: The present study aimed to examine the spatial-temporal mapping in Persian based on Lakoff and Johnson's conceptual metaphors theory to find the temporal frame reference its adoption sources. The metaphor of "time as space" is based on the hypothesis that we adopt an abstract concept such as time from an objective concept such as space and conceptualize it in our minds and languages. Methods: The required data were analyzed by designing five experimental linguistic and
more » ... uistic experiments to achieve the research objectives. Experiments include temporal word arrangement, the arrangement of temporal stickers/tokens, and language elicitation with Wednesday meeting, picture arrangement, and co-speech gesture. One hundred fifty-five male and female students aged 18 to 54 from Islamic Azad University of Khorramshahr Branch and Abadan University of Medical Sciences participated in these experimental experiments. Results: Samples' percentage and frequency of occurrence illustrated that lateral axis from right to left adopted from Persian writing direction; sagittal axis back to front adopted from walking direction, looking direction, linguistic metaphors; lateral axis from left to right adopted from mathematics writing direction are the main sources of adoption of abstract temporal concepts in Persian. Conclusion: This research implied that the adopted frame of reference and the sagittal or lateral axes are strongly influenced by the type of task, pattern and design of the experiment, the given concepts, language and linguistic metaphors, and cultural artifacts. ‫کلیدی‬ ‫های‬ ‫واژه‬ ‫زمانی‬ ‫ارجاع‬ ‫چارچوب‬ ‫فارسی‬ ‫نگاشت‬ ‫مفهومی‬ ‫استعارۀ‬ ‫مسئول‬ ‫نویسنده‬ ‫بلوار‬ ‫انتهای‬ ‫اهواز،‬ ‫ایران،‬ ‫ویسی،‬ ‫الخاص‬ ‫اهواز،‬ ‫مرکز‬ ‫نور‬ ‫پیام‬ ‫دانشگاه‬ ‫پردیس،‬ ‫انسانی‬ ‫علوم‬ ‫و‬ ‫ادبیات‬ ‫دانشکده‬ Elkhas@yahoo.com ‫ایمیل:‬ ‫مقدمه‬ ‫این‬ ‫بر‬ )Time is like space( ‫فضا»‬ ‫مثابۀ‬ ‫به‬ ‫«زمان‬ ‫مفهومی‬ ‫استعارۀ‬ ‫عینی‬ ‫مفهوم‬ ‫طریق‬ ‫از‬ ‫زمان‬ ‫چون‬ ‫انتزاعی‬ ‫مفهوم‬ ‫که‬ ‫است‬ ‫استوار‬ ‫فرضیه‬ ‫حوزۀ‬ )Conceptualization( ‫سازی‬ ‫مفهوم‬ ‫شود.‬ ‫می‬ ‫ادراک‬ ‫فضا‬ ‫چون‬ ‫که‬ ‫اقتباس‬ ‫احتمالی‬ ‫منابع‬ ‫برخی‬ ‫باشد.‬ ‫می‬ ‫فضا‬ ‫حوزۀ‬ ‫از‬ ‫برگرفته‬ ‫زمان‬ ‫جهت‬ ‫از:‬ ‫عبارتند‬ ‫شوند‬ ‫می‬ ‫زمان‬ ‫بر‬ ‫فضا‬ )Mapping( ‫نگاشت‬ ‫باعث‬ Walking/( ‫نگاه‬ ‫و‬ ‫رفتن‬ ‫راه‬ ‫جهت‬ ،)Writing direction( ‫نوشتاری‬ ،)Linguistic metaphors( ‫زبانی‬ ‫های‬ ‫استعاره‬ ،)looking direction ‫نوشتاری‬ ‫جهت‬ ‫مثال‬ ‫عنوان‬ ‫به‬ .)2 ،1( ‫اعداد‬ ‫و‬ ‫ریاضیات‬ ‫نوشتن‬ ‫جهت‬ ‫و‬ ‫باعث‬ ‫تواند‬ ‫می‬ ‫استعاری‬ ‫منشا‬ ‫یک‬ ‫عنوان‬ ‫به‬ ‫راست)‬ ‫به‬ ‫(چپ‬ ‫انگلیسی‬ ‫بر‬ ‫چپ‬ ‫که‬ ‫طوری‬ ‫به‬ ‫شود‬ ‫راست‬ ‫به‬ ‫چپ‬ ‫فضایی_زمانی‬ ‫استعاره‬ ‫ایجاد‬ ‫چکیده‬
doi:10.30699/icss.22.1.102 fatcat:mw3lsdseyvbmjfyxpguzxvk3om