Personnel Training and Development

J P Campbell
1971 Annual Review of Psychology  
A comprehensive review of the literature on organizational training and development is undertaken in this report. Developments in learning, motivation, and attitude theory are discussed, with particular attention being paid to the theory and techniques of behavior modification and to General Systems Theory. Computer-assisted instruction and methods for training disadvantaged applicants are discussed. The literature of research and evaluation methodology is noted, along with its lack of
more » ... ts lack of innovation. Finally, empirical studies of training and development outcomes are reviewed; most of these studies are concentrated in three areas: laboratory education, programed instruction, and training the disadvantaged. Research in these three areas has borne fruit, but they are bright spots in an otherwise dismal picture. For example, although management development is a huge enterprise, we know next to nothing about its behavioral effects. The report concludes with a discussion of reasons why the state of the art is what it is and with recommendations for future research and practice. literature on organizational training amidevelopment, including skills training, supervisory training, training for disadvantaged workers, and management development. All available sources were searched for the previous 5 years, the material.summarized, and conclusions drawn. The review is written for social scientists, not laymen. The report begins by discussing recent developments. in learning, motivation, and attitude theory which have relevance for the training and development.problem. Particular attention is paid to the theory and techniques of behavior.modification.. and to General Systems Theory. Next, the most recent developments in training techniques are outlined. Methods for training disadvantaged applicants and computer-assisted instruction (CAI) are discussed.at.some length. The third section deals briefly with research and evaluation methodology. This literature is conspicuous by its lack of innovation. Finally, empirical studies of training. and development outcomes are reviewed. The bulk of the empirical literature is concentrated in three areas:' laboratory education, programmed instruction, and training the disadvantaged. Research in these three areas has born fruit, especially with regard to the disadvantaged. However, they are bright spots in an otherwise dismal picture. For example, although management development is a huge enterprise, we know next to nothing about its behavioral effects.. The report concludes with a discussion of reasons why the state of the art is what it is and recommendations for future research and practice.
doi:10.1146/annurev.ps.22.020171.003025 fatcat:njm32lecgbekjflubokn6o7uuq