A Study of A-Bantu Skulls and Crania
The Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland
JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org. THIS paper is based on an examination of the sklulls in tlle collectiolns at the Britislh Museumii, the Muiseumiii of tlle Royal College of Surgeons, the Armlly
... urgeons, the Armlly MAledical Museum at Netley, and the Anatomical Museulml of Cambriclge lTliiversity. Altogether, solmle two hundred crania have been examined, their sex and state ol prieservation being indicated in the tables of measurements appended. In all cases the measurements were made with a Flower's craniometer, and a steel tape graduated in millimetres, and the cranial capacities of the skulls in the British Museum and the Anatomical Museum at Cambridge were estimated by No. 8 shot in accordance with Broca's method, and the meani of three measurements not differing by more than 10 c.c. has been recorded. In the case of skulls in the Museuim of the Royal College of Surgeonis the capacities quoted are as in the published catalogue, and have been takenl by Flower's method, it miiust be noted that while strictly comparable amonig themselves, they canniot be contrasted with skulls whose capacity has baen estilmlated witl shot. The skulls were obtained in various localities froin 10? N. latitude southwards, alnd forinerly belonged to mnembers of tribes speakilng a pure Balntui langluage. In this paper I have first described the skulls in the order of their geographical distribution and then have proceeded to consider the Bantu-speakilng peoples as a whole. The simplest classification for descriptive purposes is into four heads, a soutlhern group comprising the Zulu-Kaffir peoples, alnd inhabiting the country south of the Zambesi; an eastern group, living on the shores of the great lakes, and in the districts between these and the Indian Ocean. A western group on the Atlantic littoral south of the Gaboon river, and a northern group in the forest zone of the Mobangi-Welle-Makua valley. To these latter are allied the Monbottu people, but as they do not speak a Bantu tongue, their cranial features are not considered in the present paper. Southern, Bantus. It is usual to divide the Bantu-speaking peoples south of the Zambesi into three divisions: the true Kaffirs to the east, the Bechuanas in the centre, and the Ova-herrero on the west, the latter being, in many respects, closely allied to the western Bantus. Each of these divisions is represented in the various collections This content downloaded from 184.108.40.206 on Mon, 16 Jun 2014 05:35:27 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions 56 F. SHRUBSALL.-A Stuldy of A-bantl ,S'kas and Urania. inl English Museums, the first, however, being by far the most lnumerouis. They are considered ill order below. Eastetn or Zuit-Kaffir Groujp. The mo-untain chaini of the DIrakensberg, which runs nearly parallel to the coast, serves to separate the westerni frolmi the central Kaffir tribes, the two sections differing froml onie another physically as well as ethlnically, the coast people being stroniger and better developed, as well as in a miiore advanlced social andc moral conditioni. The namiies of the tribes are, as a rule, derived from the name or title of their first great chief or founlder, and iiost of thenii canl be traced back to a comm1101on origin some five or six huLdred years ago.' In order fronm north to south are the Mozambique tribes occupying the sea coast betweeni the Zambesi and Limpopo rivers. These are niow largely intermixed with Zulus and Swazis, who form a domiiinant class in Gazaland, and are knowim as Laudins. The chief aboriginal gr'oups, the Chobis, Baahlengwe, and Ba-toka, are said to be iliembers of the Ama-tonga stock. The Aina-swazi, betweenl the Limpopo and Polngolo rivers on the borders of the Tranisvaal. The Aimma-tomiga, around Delagoa Bay. The Aimia-ztilu, a group of small indepemident tribes welded together by the miilitary system of Chaka at the beginninig of this century into the dominant nation of Souith Africa. The Amra-firngo (literally wanderers), conliposed of the remnants of various tribes who took refuge in the British colony of Natal, after a crushirng defeat by Chaka. The Ama-xesibe and Ama-baca, remnants of tribes, formerly of considerable imiiportance, found betweenl the Umzinkultu and Umzimvubu rivers. The Aimna-mpondo, who inhabit the district known as Pondoland, along the bank of the lower Umzimvubu. The Ama-mpondumisi, east of Ulnitata. The Aba-tem-bu, occupying the district between the Umtata anid Kei rivers. The Anma-xosa, who forniierly inhabited the district between the Kei and Fisl rivers, but who were drivell durinig the Kaffir wvar1s into the Traniskei. Of these tribes, the more imlportanit for descriptive puilposes, because time best represented in English mluseumiis, are the Ama-zulu, the Amiia-nipondo, the Abatemnbu, and time Ama-xosa. Fritsch' amld de Quatrefages3 in their monlographs have takell the Ama-xosa as the type of the Kaffir peoples, although the Aba-temlbu claim to be the older family, and say that the Ama-xosa have much Hottentot blood in their veills.