Fluorescence resonance energy transfer enhanced luminescence (FRETEL) of Quantum Dyes

R. C. Leif, M. C. Becker, A. Bromm, Jr., L. M. Vallarino, S. Yang, Jörg Enderlein, Zygmunt K. Gryczynski
2006 Ultrasensitive and Single-Molecule Detection Technologies  
Methods for increasing the luminescence intensity of lanthanide macrocycles, Quantum Dyes®, by the Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer Enhanced Luminescence (FRETEL) effect in the solid state have been developed. A homogeneous solution containing the europium or terbium Quantum Dye and an excess of selected energy transfer species is evaporated to dryness, resulting in a thin film that surrounds and embeds the Quantum Dye or its conjugates. Under these conditions, in the presence of the
more » ... inium-thenoyltrifluoroacetonate complex as the energy transfer species, the luminescence of the europium Quantum Dye increased approximately 6-fold upon drying. However, the presence of a nonemitting lanthanide such as gadolinium is not always required for this effect. In studies employing the 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylate ion as the energy transfer species, where both the terbium and the europium Quantum Dyes could be simultaneously excited at 280 nm, the presence of gadolinium actually decreased the luminescence compared to that obtained with the 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylate alone. The simplest explanation for the FRETEL effect is that fluorescence resonance energy transfer occurs between the photo-trapping energy transfer species, either unbound or complexed with the nonluminescent gadolinium ion. The energy being finally transferred to the luminescent lanthanide ion complexes with consequent increase in emission intensity. This new method for the enhancement of luminescence intensity in the solid state has the significant advantage of eliminating the need for the previously required aqueous emulsion, which was difficult to make and transport.
doi:10.1117/12.645069 fatcat:i7kh5ha4zbb5thr6zqumjcd5rq