Physicochemical Properties of Biodiesel Synthesised from Grape Seed, Philippine Tung, Kesambi, and Palm Oils
The production of biodiesel using vegetable oil is an effective way to meet growing energy demands, which could potentially reduce the dependency on fossil fuels. The aim of this study was to evaluate grape seed (Vitis vinifera), Philippine tung (Reutealis trisperma), and kesambi (Schleichera oleosa) oils as potential feedstocks for biodiesel production to meet this demand. Firstly, biodiesels from these oils were produced and then their fatty acid methyl ester profiles and physicochemical
... hysicochemical properties were evaluated and compared with palm biodiesel. The results showed that the biodiesel produced from grape seed oil possessed the highest oxidation stability of 4.62 h. On the other hand, poor oxidation stability was observed for Philippine tung biodiesel at 2.47 h. The poor properties of Philippine tung biodiesel can be attributed to the presence of α-elaeostearic fatty acid. Furthermore, synthetic antioxidants (pyrogallol) and diesel were used to improve the oxidation stability. The 0.2 wt.% concentration of pyrogallol antioxidant could increase the oxidation stability of grape seed biodiesel to 6.24 h, while for kesambi and Philippine tung, biodiesels at higher concentrations of 0.3% and 0.4 wt.%, respectively, were needed to meet the minimum limit of 8 h. The blending of biodiesel with fossil diesel at different ratios can also increase the oxidation stability.