Biophilic Design for Restorative University Learning Environments: A Critical Review of Literature and Design Recommendations
The influence of environmental design on people's wellbeing and productivity has been well studied in some settings such as offices, hospitals, and elementary schools, but salutogenic and biophilic design in urban post-secondary educational environments remains understudied and warrants closer investigation. There are unique challenges faced by these students and implementing health promoting and restorative, environmental design strategies could improve the quality of life and learning
... nd learning outcomes of university students. This paper identifies pertinent themes in published multi-disciplinary literature relating to the influence of the built environment on university students: emotional stress, happiness, stimulation, cognitive function, social support, belonging, places to study, lighting, and ventilation. The results of the semi-structured literature review identifies, analyzes, and categorizes relevant studies that examine nature views, nature images, natural colors, natural materials, auditory and olfactory aspects of nature, nature images with water, indoor plants, campus landscapes, study spaces, local materials and style, daylight access, and thermal and environmental comfort. These are organized according to the biophilic patterns identified by Browning, Ryan, and Clancy. Trends and gaps in understanding the influence of biophilic design on university settings are discussed, and the paper identifies evidence-based design recommendations for incorporating biophilic design in university settings.