From dualism to complementarity: a systemic concept for the research process

Markus Schwaninger
2007 International Journal of Applied Systemic Studies  
In this paper, dualistic concepts are identified as limitations to scientific progress. A proposal is made for bridging a set of three gaps between polar opposites in order to pave the way towards a more holistic, systemic research practice. The dualistic concepts addressed are explanation vs. understanding, exploration vs. hypothesis testing, and discovery vs. design. If one treats these pairs of concepts not as dichotomies but as complementarities, then a synthesis of the concepts is
more » ... hed. Through the use of directed graph notation, a dynamic view of the research activity emerges, which sheds new light on the process of innovation.
doi:10.1504/ijass.2007.013813 fatcat:vuyehn26d5huvbxt7bck5z4ofq