Solar-driven photocatalytic degradation of phenol in aqueous solution using visible light active carbon-modified (CM)-n-TiO2nanoparticles
Desalination and Water Treatment
A B S T R A C T Visible light active carbon-modified (CM)-n-TiO 2 nanoparticles were synthesized by sol/gel method. Carbon modification of n-TiO 2 was performed during the synthesis process by using titanium butoxide as a carbon source in addition of being a molecular precursor of TiO 2 . When compared to unmodified n-TiO 2 , CM-n-TiO 2 nanoparticles exhibited significantly higher photocatalytic activity toward the photocatalytic degradation of phenol in aqueous solution under illumination of
... r illumination of both UV light and real sunlight. Carbon modification was found to be responsible for narrowing the bandgap energy of CM-n-TiO 2 from 3.14 to 1.86 eV. The effects of catalyst dose, initial concentration of phenol, and pH on the degradation kinetics of phenol were investigated. The highest degradation rate of phenol was obtained at the optimal conditions of pH 5 and 1.0 g L À1 of CM-n-TiO 2 . The photocatalytic degradation of phenol using CM-n-TiO 2 obeyed a pseudo-first-order kinetics according to the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model.