Physical activity associates with enhanced immunogenicity of an inactivated virus vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 in patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases
Immunocompromised individuals show lower vaccine immunogenicity, which may be modulated by physical activity. This prospective cohort study within a phase-4 vaccination trial investigated whether physical activity is associated with enhanced immunogenicity of Coronavac (SARS-CoV-2 inactivated vaccine) in patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARD) (n=898) and non-ARD (n=197) individuals without pre-existing immunogenicity to SARS-CoV-2 after receiving a two-dose vaccine schedule.
... rsion rates of total anti-SARS-CoV-2 S1/S2 IgG (SC), geometric mean titers of anti-S1/S2 IgG (GMT), factor-increase in GMT (FI-GMT), frequency of neutralizing antibody (NAb), and median neutralizing activity were assessed. After controlling for covariates, active patients (≥150 min/week) exhibited greater SC (OR: 1.4 [95%CI: 1.1-2.0]), GMT (32% [95%CI: 8.8-60) and FI-GMT (33% [95%CI: 9.6-63%]) vs. inactive. Cluster analysis (physical activity/sedentary status) revealed greater GMT (43.0% [95% CI: 11.0-84.0%) and FI-GMT (48.0% [95%CI: 14.0-92.0%]) in active/non-sedentary (≥150 min/week/<8h/day) vs. inactive/sedentary (<150 min/week/>8h/day) ARD. A dose-response was observed, with greater benefits for ≥350 min/week of physical activity (OR: 1.6 [95%CI: 1.1-2.4]; 41% [95%CI: 10-80%]; 35% [95%CI: 4.3-74], for SC, GMT, and FI-GMT, respectively). Greater SC (OR: 9.9 [95%CI: 1.1-89.0]) and GMT (26% [95%CI: 2.2-56.0%]) were observed in active vs. inactive non-ARD. A physically active lifestyle may enhance SARS-CoV-2 vaccine immunogenicity, a finding of particular clinical relevance for immunocompromised individuals.