Sensory-motor integration in focal dystonia

Laura Avanzino, Michele Tinazzi, Silvio Ionta, Mirta Fiorio
<span title="">2015</span> <i title="Elsevier BV"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/vtuexoohondejhlk4iamncfka4" style="color: black;">Neuropsychologia</a> </i> &nbsp;
stimulation 19 20 Abbreviations: 21 CNS= central nervous system; fMRI = functional magnetic resonance imaging; LAI = long-latency 22 afferent inhibition; M1 = primary motor cortex; MEP = motor evoked potential; PET = positron 23 emission tomography; PMd = dorsal premotor cortex; PMv = ventral premotor cortex; PPC = 24 posterior partietal cortex; ppTMS = paired pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation; rCBF = regional 25 cerebral blood flow; rTMS = repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation;
more &raquo; ... = short-latency 26 Abstract 32 Traditional definitions of focal dystonia point to its motor component, mainly affecting 33 planning and execution of voluntary movements. However, focal dystonia is tightly linked also to 34 sensory dysfunction. Accurate motor control requires an optimal processing of afferent inputs from 35 different sensory systems, in particular visual and somatosensory (e.g., touch and proprioception). 36 Several experimental studies indicate that sensory-motor integration -the process through which 37 sensory information is used to plan, execute, and monitor movements-is impaired in focal 38 dystonia. The neural degenerations associated with these alterations affect not only the basal 39 ganglia-thalamic-frontal cortex loop, but also the parietal cortex and cerebellum. The present review 40 outlines the experimental studies describing impaired sensory-motor integration in focal dystonia, 41 establishes their relationship with changes in specific neural mechanisms, and provides new insight 42 towards the implementation of novel intervention protocols. Based on the reviewed state-of-the-art 43 evidence, the theoretical framework summarized in the present article will not only result in a better 44 understanding of the pathophysiology of dystonia, but it will also lead to the development of new 45 rehabilitation strategies. 46 47 Published -Neuropsychologia 2015 pathophysiology of dystonia. In addition, some limitations to this hypothesis will be discussed, like 74 the inability, so far, to establish which specific neural structure is primarily altered and which 75 instead is altered for compensatory and not pathophysiological reasons. 76 77 2. Sensory-motor integration: neurophysiological and neuroanatomical aspects 78 Optimal movement execution requires accurate processing of sensory information from the 79 environment and from the body. Different sensory systems contribute to motor control by encoding 80 both such external and internal sources of information. For example, one of the most obvious 81 interaction between senses and movements is visuo-motor integration, in which visual information 82 about objects in the external world is converted from extrinsic/allocentric coordinates into 83
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