Effect of Mutated ids Overexpression on IDS Enzyme Activity and Developmental Phenotypes in Zebrafish Embryos: A Valuable Index for Assessing Critical Point-Mutations Associated with Mucopolysaccharidosis Type II Occurrence in Humans
Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II) is an X-linked disorder resulting from a deficiency in iduronate 2-sulfatase (IDS), which is reported to be caused by gene mutations in the iduronate 2-sulfatase (IDS) gene. Many IDS mutation sites have not yet had their causal relationship with MPS II characterized. We employed a gain-of-function strategy whereby we microinjected different mutated zebrafish ids (z-ids) mRNAs corresponded to human IDS gene into zebrafish embryos, and then measured their
... n measured their total IDS enzymatic activity and observed the occurrence of defective phenotypes during embryonic development. We examined three known mutation sites for human IDS genes (h-IDS) associated with MPS II symptoms, including h-IDS-P86L, -S333L and -R468W, which corresponded to z-ids-P80L, -S327L and -R454W. When these three mutated z-ids mRNAs were overexpressed in zebrafish embryos, the IDS enzymatic activity of the total proteins extracted from the injected embryos was not increased compared with the endogenous IDS of the untreated embryos, which suggests that the IDS enzymatic activity of these three mutated z-ids was totally lost, as expected. Additionally, we observed defective phenotypes in these injected embryos, resulting from the failed IDS enzyme breakdown, which, in turn, has a dominant negative effect on the endogenous wild-type IDS function. These phenotypes were similar to the clinical symptoms observed in MPS II pathogenesis. We further studied six uncharacterized IDS mutation sites as identified by the Taiwanese MPS newborn screening programs. We propose a novel IDS enzyme activity assay combined with phenotypic observation in zebrafish embryos, as an alternative platform for quickly providing a valuable index for preliminarily assessment of any identified IDS point mutation gene that has not yet been characterized, in the context of its role in MPS II development.