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How do fluid party systems that exist in many new democracies affect democratic accountability? We investigate how the incentives generated by fluid party systems, i.e., by the prospect of party-switching when economic outcomes are bad, interact with the incentives generated by the system of repeated elections, i.e., by the prospect of an electoral sanction when economic outcomes are bad. We use a new database on all legislative incumbents and all competitive elections that took place in Polanddoi:10.1353/wp.2006.0006 fatcat:xvu5mhsmsvdktigeccw3r7mn6y