Simulations of thermal Bose fields in the classical limit

M. J. Davis, S. A. Morgan, K. Burnett
2002 Physical Review A. Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics  
We demonstrate that the time-dependent projected Gross-Pitaevskii equation derived earlier [Davis, et al., J. Phys. B 34, 4487 (2001)] can represent the highly occupied modes of a homogeneous, partially-condensed Bose gas. We find that this equation will evolve randomised initial wave functions to equilibrium, and compare our numerical data to the predictions of a gapless, second-order theory of Bose-Einstein condensation [S. A. Morgan, J. Phys. B 33, 3847 (2000)]. We find that we can determine
more » ... the temperature of the equilibrium state when this theory is valid. Outside the range of perturbation theory we describe how to measure the temperature of our simulations. We also determine the dependence of the condensate fraction and specific heat on temperature for several interaction strengths, and observe the appearance of vortex networks. As the Gross-Pitaevskii equation is non-perturbative, we expect that it can describe the correct thermal behaviour of a Bose gas as long as all relevant modes are highly occupied.
doi:10.1103/physreva.66.053618 fatcat:4wfuw7j5jnfr5ddweud2ah23tm