Checkpoint inhibition in myeloma

D. M. Benson
2016 Hematology ASH Education Program  
Historically, attempts at cancer immunotherapy have emphasized strategies designed to stimulate or augment the immune system into action. In the past decade, a complementary approach has developed, that of releasing immune cells from inhibitory restraint. Discoveries in the fundamental biology of how immunity is regulated, how the immune system interfaces with malignancy, and how cancer cells may exploit these processes to evade detection have all been translated into the rapidly growing field
more » ... idly growing field of therapeutic immune checkpoint inhibition for cancer. Myeloma is a malignancy associated with significant immune dysfunction imparted both by the disease itself as well as by many of the immunosuppressive therapies that have been used in the past. The growing body of preclinical data regarding immunoregulatory mechanisms that appear active in myeloma has begun to be translated to clinical trials targeting these signaling axes. This review will attempt to summarize the current understanding of the basic biology of several immune checkpoint pathways that may be important in myeloma and provide an up-to-date overview of recent and ongoing clinical trials of immune checkpoint inhibitors in myeloma. Finally, several current challenges and possible future directions of immune checkpoint blockade in myeloma will be reviewed. Learning Objectives • Understand the mechanisms and translational relevance of targeting immune checkpoints in myeloma • Describe recent and ongoing clinical trials of checkpoint inhibitors in myeloma • Anticipate future opportunities and approaches in checkpoint inhibition in myeloma
doi:10.1182/asheducation-2016.1.528 pmid:27913525 fatcat:3ynpyxqqanednbjes4jt67rgfa