New Implant Macrogeometry to Improve and Accelerate the Osseointegration: An In Vivo Experimental Study
A new implant design with healing chambers in the threads was analyzed and compared with a conventional implant macrogeometry, both implants models with and without surface treatment. Eighty conical implants were prepared using commercially pure titanium (grade IV) by the company Implacil De Bortoli (São Paulo, Brazil). Four groups were performed, as described below: Group 1 (G1), traditional conical implants with surface treatment; group 2 (G2), traditional conical implants without surface
... without surface treatment (machined surface); group 3 (G3), new conical implant design with surface treatment; group 4 (G4), new conical implant design without surface treatment. The implants were placed in the two tibias (n = 2 implants per tibia) of twenty New Zealand rabbits determined by randomization. The animals were euthanized after 15 days (Time 1) and 30 days (Time 2). The parameters evaluated were the implant stability quotient (ISQ), removal torque values (RTv), and histomorphometric evaluation to determine the bone to implant contact (%BIC) and bone area fraction occupancy (BAFO%). The results showed that the implants with the macrogeometry modified with healing chambers in the threads produced a significant enhancement in the osseointegration, accelerating this process. The statistical analyses of ISQ and RTv showed a significative statistical difference between the groups in both time periods of evaluation (p ≤ 0.0001). Moreover, an important increase in the histological parameters were found for groups G3 and G4, with significant statistical differences to the BIC% (in the Time 1 p = 0.0406 and in the Time 2 p < 0.0001) and the BAFO% ((in the Time 1 p = 0.0002 and in the Time 2 p = 0.0045). In conclusion, the result data showed that the implants with the new macrogeometry, presenting the healing chambers in the threads, produced a significant enhancement in the osseointegration, accelerating the process.