The validity of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R) in acute stroke
Disability and Rehabilitation
of routine clinical practice. After patients had received an ACE-R they were approached for full neuropsychological testing and, at this time, informed consent for the study was sought. Each participant received a battery of 'gold standard' neuropsychological tests, selected for their proven validity and appropriateness for use with neurological patients (see appendix 1.5). The neuropsychological test battery was administered in a consistent order comprising of; the Logical Memory subtest from
... emory subtest from the Wechsler Memory Scales III (WMS III)  to assess verbal memory, the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure test (recall)  to assess visual memory, the Star Cancellation test from the Behavioural Inattention Test  to assess visual neglect, the Rey-Osterrieth Copy task  to assess visuo-spatial perception, the Hayling Sentence Completion test  and a Verbal Fluency test (F,A,S)  to test executive functioning, and the Letter-Number Sequencing and Digit Span subtests from the WMS-III as measures of attention. Neuropsychological testing lasted approximately one hour per participant, and was carried out by a Trainee Clinical Psychologist who was blind to the participants' ACE-R scores. The tests were scored and interpreted by the Trainee Clinical Psychologist, under the supervision of a qualified Clinical Psychologist. The majority of tests were scored according to the scoring procedures and norms presented in each test manual. The exceptions were the Hayling Sentence Completion and F,A,S tests which were interpreted using alternative norms, derived from populations with a greater number of older adults [27,28]. Percentile scores for each test were derived using the published means and standard deviations. Patients were classified as impaired on a test if they scored below the fifth percentile.