A preliminary investigation of Stroop-related intrinsic connectivity in cocaine dependence: associations with treatment outcomes

Marci R. Mitchell, Iris M. Balodis, Elise E. DeVito, Cheryl M. Lacadie, Jon Yeston, Dustin Scheinost, R. Todd Constable, Kathleen M. Carroll, Marc N. Potenza
2013 The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse  
Background-Cocaine-dependent individuals demonstrate neural and behavioral differences compared to healthy comparison subjects when performing the Stroop color-word inference test. Stroop measures also relate to treatment outcome for cocaine dependence. Intrinsic connectivity analyses assess the extent to which task-related regional brain activations are related to each other in the absence of defining a priori regions-of-interest. Objective-This study examined: 1) the extent to which
more » ... pendent and non-addicted individuals differed on measures of intrinsic connectivity during fMRI Stroop performance; and, 2) the relationships between fMRI Stroop intrinsic connectivity and treatment outcome in cocaine dependence. Methods-Sixteen treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent patients and matched non-addicted comparison subjects completed an fMRI Stroop task. Between-group differences in intrinsic connectivity were assessed and related to self-reported and urine-toxicology-based cocaineabstinence measures. Results-Cocaine-dependent patients vs. comparison subjects showed less intrinsic connectivity in cortical and sub-cortical regions. When adjusting for individual degree of intrinsic connectivity, cocaine-dependent vs. comparison subjects showed relatively greater intrinsic connectivity in the ventral striatum, putamen, inferior frontal gyrus, anterior insula, thalamus, and substantia nigra. Non-mean-adjusted intrinsic-connectivity measures in the midbrain, thalamus, ventral striatum, substantia nigra, insula, and hippocampus negatively correlated with measures of cocaine abstinence. Conclusion-The diminished intrinsic connectivity in cocaine-dependent vs. comparison subjects suggests poorer communication across brain regions during cognitive-control processes. In mean-adjusted analyses, the cocaine-dependent group displayed relatively greater Strooprelated connectivity in regions implicated in motivational processes in addictions. The relationships between treatment outcomes and connectivity in the midbrain and basal ganglia suggest that connectivity represents a potential treatment target.
doi:10.3109/00952990.2013.841711 pmid:24200209 pmcid:PMC3827911 fatcat:vrimnmjydvh6zbklreqe5itg3a