Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi as Potential Agents in Ameliorating Heavy Metal Stress in Plants

Rajni Dhalaria, Dinesh Kumar, Harsh Kumar, Eugenie Nepovimova, Kamil Kuča, Muhammad Torequl Islam, Rachna Verma
2020 Agronomy  
Heavy metal accumulation in plants is a severe environmental problem, rising at an expeditious rate. Heavy metals such as cadmium, arsenic, mercury and lead are known environmental pollutants that exert noxious effects on the morpho-physiological and biological attributes of a plant. Due to their mobile nature, they have become an extended part of the food chain and affect human health. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi ameliorate metal toxicity as they intensify the plant's ability to tolerate
more » ... stress. Mycorrhizal fungi have vesicles, which are analogous to fungal vacuoles and accumulate massive amount of heavy metals in them. With the help of a pervasive hyphal network, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi help in the uptake of water and nutrients, thereby abating the use of chemical fertilizers on the plants. They also promote resistance parameters in the plants, secrete a glycoprotein named glomalin that reduces the metal uptake in plants by forming glycoprotein–metal complexes, and improve the quality of the soil. They also assist plants in phytoremediation by increasing the absorptive area, increase the antioxidant response, chelate heavy metals and stimulate genes for protein synthesis that reduce the damage caused by free radicals. The current manuscript focuses on the uptake of heavy metals, accumulation, and arbuscular mycorrhizal impact in ameliorating heavy metal stress in plants.
doi:10.3390/agronomy10060815 fatcat:673q3vvoxjeo5cz24fx3xqi4tu