Multiple-stressors effects on Iberian freshwaters: A review of current knowledge and future research priorities

Cayetano Gutiérrez-Cánovas, Rebeca Arias-Real, Daniel Bruno, Marco J. Cabrerizo, Juan Manuel González-Olalla, Félix Picazo, Ferran Romero, David Sánchez-Fernández, Susana Pallarés
2022 Limnetica  
Multiple-stressors effects on Iberian freshwaters: A review of current knowledge and future research priorities Freshwater ecosystems are exposed to an increasing number of stressors, challenging their biomonitoring and management. Despite recent advances in multiple-stressor research, regional-scale assessments in areas with high freshwater biodiversity and increasing anthropogenic pressure are urgently needed. We reviewed 61 studies focused on freshwater individuals, populations and
more » ... s from the Iberian Peninsula to (i) quantify the frequency of experimental approaches used (manipulative, observational), aquatic systems, biological organization levels, and types of organisms and modelled responses, (ii) identify key individual stressors and the frequency of significant positive (increase in response magnitude) and negative (decrease) effects and (iii) determine types of interacting stressors and the frequency of their combined effects. Our dataset comprised 409 unique responses to 13 types of individual stressors, 34 stressor pairs and 12 high-order interactions (3-and 4-way). We found a higher prevalence of manipulative (85 %) respect to observational studies, and a greater focus on lotic systems (59 %) and heterotrophic organisms (58 %). The most studied stressors were nutrient (Nutr), thermal (Therm), hydrologic (Hydr), ultraviolet radiation (UVR), toxic (Toxic) and salinity (Sal) stress and land-use pressure. Individual stressors showed a higher proportion of negative (34 %) than positive effects (26 %). Nutr × UVR, Toxic × Toxic, Therm × Toxic, Hydr × Toxic, Sal × Therm, and Nutr × Therm were the most studied stressor pairs. Non-interactive (50 %) and interactive responses (50 %) were balanced. Antagonistic effects (18 %) were slightly more common than synergisms (15 %), reversal or opposing Limnetica, 41(2): 000-000 (2022).
doi:10.23818/limn.41.15 fatcat:zi73uduj5rg5hny4nkhc4jihvu