Cost Optimization of a Zero-Emission Office Building
The cost-effectiveness of energy efficiency measures meant to achieve a zero-emission office building is investigated and compared to business as usual energy efficiency measures. The laboratory for zero emission buildings, the ZEB Lab, located in Trondheim, Norway, is an office building designed and built to compensate its lifecycle emissions with the use of a large array of building-integrated photovoltaic panels, pursuing a zero-emissions ambition level. Three design alternatives are
... ated by downgrading the building insulation level to the values recommended by the currently enforced Norwegian building code, the byggteknisk forskrift TEK17. A sensitivity analysis of the variation of the installed area of the photovoltaic panels is performed to evaluate if smaller areas give better cost performances. Net present values are calculated by using three scenarios of future increase of electricity price for a time horizon of 20 years. Results show that business as usual solutions give higher net present values. Optimized areas of the photovoltaic panels further increase the net present values of the business as usual solutions in the highest electricity price scenario. The zero-emission ambition level shows a higher net present value than that of the business as usual solutions for a time horizon of at least 36 years.