Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder (SSMIS) Radiometric Calibration Anomalies—Part I: Identification and Characterization
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Two calibration anomalies of the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's (DMSP) Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder (SSMIS) radiometer are examined by using several sources of data. Early orbit mode data from the SSMIS are used to create radiometric images of the warm calibration load that evolve over an entire orbit to elucidate the effects of direct and reflected solar illumination of the warm-load (WL) emissive surface. Analysis of the radiometric gain and apparent WL radiometric
... WL radiometric brightness temperature observed during the solar intrusion events show the impact of these events on the SSMIS calibration. A graphical simulation of the SSMIS and DMSP spacecraft is used to define the regions where solar intrusion occurs and to characterize the WL anomalous regions for the specific DMSP F-16 orbit. The graphical simulation is also used to determine the cause of additional calibration errors that were identified by using comparisons to numerical weather prediction (NWP) models, as emission from the SSMIS reflector antenna. Mitigation of these calibration anomalies is critical if the operational SSMIS radiometers achieve their full utility in NWP, climate monitoring, forecasting, and other emerging applications. A detailed characterization of the SSMIS calibration provides a basis for this process.